Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association. Costumes were used to indicate the gender, wealth, or occupation of the character. And the actors were usually men, too. Minoan art pictures a goddess surrounded by dancers who adore her that seem to depict this. He refused at first but then gave in, while Cassandra, the Trojan princess, who had been endowed with the gift of prophecy but with the curse of no one believing her, waited outside, knowing doom awaited Encyclopedia Beta, 2007. In the palace of Argos, Clytaemnestra has been having an open affair with Aegisthus. In the past decades, students used to dress formally to go to class, but now students have many… Culture determines gender roles and what is masculine and feminine.
After her soliloquy, Clytemnestra pleads with and convinces Agamemnon to walk on the robes laid out for him. In the third book of Oresteia, Orestes is brought to the court of Athena who is the patron of Athens, and tried in front of a Jury for the crime of murdering his mother. The Furies Clytemnestra tries to awake the sleeping Furies. I will start by exploring the royal women, including the women of the House of Atreus and the Trojan princess Cassandra. In this society men were expected to be strong, decisive, and honorable, while women were thought to be passive, and were expected to be subservient and silent.
Pomeroy 1994:98 argues that if Aegisthus had perpetrated the murder it would have been more readily accepted but instead Clytemnestra is presented as the bad woman. Gender Roles Gender roles are the expectations, qualities, and manners or behaviours that the society associates with feminism or masculinity. Ancient Greek theater began as a part of a festival for men only. There are a variety of theories and contrasting perspectives on the development and maintenance of gender roles. The heroic order depicted Penelope as the absolute role model for -Athenian women.
The stories that the classical Greeks told were about the peoples who lived in Greece before and during the Trojan war. The dithyramb is a frenzied dance and one can see this in the behavior of the Korybantes. The old form of justice was one that valued the sanctity of the parent-child bond and revenge when that familial bond was betrayed. Athena casts the deciding vote and determines that Orestes will not be killed. The morality of later Greek classical plays supports this idea. Oresteia originally included a , Πρωτεύς , following the tragic trilogy, but all except a single line of Proteus has been lost.
The trilogy—consisting of Ἀγαμέμνων , Χοηφóρoι , and Εὐμενίδες —also shows how the Greek gods interacted with the characters and influenced their decisions pertaining to events and disputes. This is shown at many various times, like when the Furies decide to change from their role as Furies to the Eumenides, Orestes, also does not kill Clytaemnestra simply because he is predetermined to, but does it for personal important specific reasons, such as avenging the death of his own father. Gender Roles In my experiment, I wanted to find out if there was any basis to the common complaint that pretty women receive better service than others within a typical consumer setting. In breaking away from the traditional female role, she sets up the scenario for the entire story to unfold. . Physical labor was demanded, women now began to look after the home as men perform more physical duties, and the pattern was set.
When compared to her daughter Electra, Clytemnestra proves to be completely different. The factors that led to this verdict in favor of Orestes are: males are superior to females; Zeus approved the murder of Clytemnestra; Clytemnestra broke the sacred marriage bond by murdering her husband; and the acquittal will lead to a pact between Athens and the Furies. Since the theater rose out of religious ceremonies, it stands to reason that women participated. The Furies play a big part in these plays, especially in the third and final play, The Eumenides. Women participated heavily in religion so it is possible they participated fully in the theater, but they were excluded from the festival where the dramas that have come down to us were performed. This period was one of dynamic cultural and political change. Clytemnestra's wrath at the sacrifice of their daughter Iphigenia, and her jealousy of Cassandra, are said to have been the motives of her crime Encyclopedia Beta, 2007.
Evidence of these roles can be derived from even the Old Testament of the Bible as early as Genesis. After killing both Agamemnon and Cassandra, Clytemnestra announced it to the people of Argos, making sure that her role in the assassination was no secret to the public. Cassandra tragically knew that she and Agamemnon were about to die upon arriving in Argos, but there was nothing she could do to save herself. Had men had power to sing their own song, make their own poetry and choose their own destinies, they would deal with good, robust and exemplary heroines. An interesting discussion of this topic is at: Masks and Costumes in the Ancient Greek Theater Masks were important in ancient Greek drama. He is asking for deliverance from the retributive system of justice, where the only certainty is that bloodshed breeds more bloodshed. It all starts in Agamemnon with Clytemnestra, who murders her husband, Agamemnon, in order to obtain vengeance for his sacrificing of their daughter, Iphigenia.
The conviction of the religion of Dionysus, that the worshipper can not only worship, but can become, can be, his god, is essentially dramatic. It that context there would be no restriction on women as performers nor on women in the audience. Clytemnestra finally kills Agamemnon after the Trojan War, when he brings home a raped and captured Trojan priestess. In Athens he is more associated with the sacrifice of a goat. Orestes instead has to go to Athens and plead his case before the goddess Athena. In order to demonstrate this, I will first describe those ways in which the views of justice in Aeschylus' Oresteia and in Heraclitus appear dissimilar.
She desires his death to avenge the sacrifice of her daughter , to exterminate the only thing hindering her from commandeering the crown, and finally be able to publicly embrace her long-time-lover. Greek plays were often presented to honor the god Dionysus but mainly in Athens. Clytemnestra's role in this play is a little different because she does not speak like most of the other women in the play. Electra wants to be more in control and assured of herself than what she believes her mother is, and she looks to her father for this assurance. The American Journal of Philology.