In April, 1996 the National Park Service designated the park as a certified site on the National Historic Trail Of Tears. According to Perdue 2008 , the Trail of Tears is regarded as one of the tragic eras in the U. As a result, by 1837, it is estimated that more than 46,000 Native Indians from these southern states had forcefully been relocated from their homelands thus opening about 25 million acres for mainly white settlement Perdue, 2008. Using the information you have learned, reflect on the event and come to your own conclusion. As Vice-President of the Sequoyah Convention of 1905 and as President of the Guthrie Constitutional Convention of 1906, I witnessed some facts of historical value, hitherto not given publication. The oral and the written traditions preserved vivid accounts of the Trail of Tears and its impact on the Indian culture. The cruel wedding ceremony caused tears; being shut out of the democratic process caused tears; the denial of duel joint statehood caused tears; the Dawes Act with its resulting forced relocation and genocide caused tears that are still shed today.
As a result, between May 1838 and March 1839, federal soldiers and state militia rounded up 16,000 Cherokees from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina, taking them to stockades, and forcing them to get on boats and then march to Indian territory, present-day Oklahoma. Not until then did the survivors receive much-needed food and supplies. These remove hundreds and almost thousands of miles at their own expense, purchase the lands they occupy, and support themselves at their new homes from the moment of their arrival. Whites continued to follow party politics and attended national conventions, because they believed that I. They are by no means yet adjusted to the new economic and social conditions that confront them. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold, and exposure.
In spite of their differing severity, forced relocations were part of the U. It has been described as an act of genocide. In conclusion, the Trail of Tears is a perfect expression of the U. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Sauk and Fox Indians, painting by Karl Bodmer, c.
With pride and pleasure, I present to him Miss Indian Territory, who was reared as a political orphan, tutored by Federal office holders and controlled by an indifferent guardian residing a thousand miles from her habitation. Bird, Paint, Deer, Blue, Wolf, Long Hair, Wild Potato. This forced emigration therefore not only caused a lot of casualties among the Native Americans due to sickness, deprivation and the exhaustion suffered during their travels, but also threatened their sovereignty as a free people that should be entitled to its own laws. The United States insisted that the agreement should hold, instigating such fierce resistance to removal that the ensuing conflict became known as the Second 1835—42. The Indians can no longer make a living as they did in the past by hunting, fishing, gathering wild products, and the extremely limited practice of primitive agriculture. This would depend on your beliefs. There are seven Cherokee clans.
In spite of their differing severity, forced relocations were part of the U. They did they have any authoritative power amongst their tribe members. This is called the Trail of Tears. To bring this to a close, all tribes experienced a Trail of Tears due to forced relocations; the tears did not end. Trail of Tears To bring this to a close, all tribes experienced a Trail of Tears due to forced relocations; the tears did not end.
Gonna give you barley, carrots and pertaters, Pasture fer the cattle, Spinach and Termayters! Gonna give you barley, carrots and pertaters, Pasture fer the cattle, Spinach and Termayters! Groups living in the prairies and deciduous forests of the Lower Midwest, including bands of , , , , and , ceded their land with great reluctance and were moved west in small parties, usually under pressure from speculators, settlers, and the U. The pecuniary advantages which it promises to the Government are the least of its recommendations. This meant that speculators who purchased such properties could immediately turn a profit: fields had already been cleared, pastures fenced, barns and houses built, and the like. Whites complained of an inadequate justice system. A few groups attempted armed resistance, most notably a band led by the Sauk leader in 1832.
All three at different times and at different places said the same thing, which is there could not be anyone between the starting line of the Land Run and the Federal Marshal, all tribal members had to be gone. During removal, three to four hundred Cherokees hid in the wooden mountains of Western North Carolina. This is also considered as the beginning of the Indian extermination by the U. Janet Gabler-Hover and Robert Sattelmeyer. Land speculators soon demanded that the U. To Oklahoma, into whose identity Indian Territory is about to be merged forever, must be entrusted the care of the princely estate. The Southeast Indians were for the most part tightly organized and heavily invested in agriculture.
In a beautiful poem entitled The Legend of the Corn Beads Edna Chekelelee summarizes the traumatic experience of the removal with a short legend about corn. All three at different times and at different places said the same thing, which is there could not be anyone between the starting line of the Land Run and the Federal Marshal, all tribal members had to be gone. To better their condition in an unknown land our forefathers left all that was dear in earthly objects. In a beautiful poem entitled The Legend of the Corn Beads Edna Chekelelee summarizes the traumatic experience of the removal with a short legend about corn. Near the burial area in the Park,The Trail Of Tears Commission has planted seven Red Cherokee Chief Dogwoods in honor of each clan.
Thousands of native Cherokees were forced to flee their homelands at gunpoint range. Consequently, the Trail of Tears resulted in massive deaths among the Indians apart from damaging the Indian American spirit and self respect. The 1830 Removal Act can therefore be qualified as an act of political and culture aggression of the United States against the Indians. Thousands of Cherokees died during evacuation process due to diseases and inhuman conditions. Although many were eventually captured and removed to the west, a substantial number of Seminole people managed to elude the authorities and remain in Florida.
They were plagued with diseases such as dysentery, pneumonia, whooping cough, pellagra and tuberculosis, which usually wiped out entire families Cave, 2003. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west. In my view, Oklahoma statehood was a very dark page. The 1830 Removal Act can therefore be qualified as an act of political and culture aggression of the United States against the Indians. Held in miserable internment camps for days or weeks before their journeys began, many became ill, and most were very poorly equipped for the trip.