There are many welfare measures are taken for supporting the workmen example of which is legal assistance, housing schemes and education to children of workers so these functions of trade union makes its existence significant for social justice. By 1920, according to an estimate there were 125 Unions consisting of 250,000 members. Migratory Character of Workers and Few Others. Textile industry in the country has not only been the prime mover of all trade union activities but it has also been the supreme centre of all labour activities and labour trouble. The individual employee possesses very little bargaining power as compared to that of his employer. It seeks to develop among workers a spirit of combination, class-consciousness and solidarity of interest and arouses a consciousness, for self-respect, rights and duties.
In order to regulate the working hours and other service conditions of the Indian textile laborers, the Indian Factories Act was enacted in 1881. Sometimes, workers do not join any trade union because they are apathetic to it. Where there is only one union, this condition will not apply b it must have at least 15% of the workers as its members c a union may be recognised as a representative union for an industry if it has a membership of at least 25% of workers d if there are more than one unions in an industry, the one with the largest membership should be recognised e only unions which observed the Code of Discipline would be entitled to recognition. The credit for the first association of Indian workers is generally given to the Bombay Mill-Hands Association founded by in 1890. Multiplicity of the trade unions in India is traceable to the domination and control of trade union movement by rival political parties, which led to the inter union rivalry. This is the public support or sympathy is almost negligible.
The majority of unions in the Caribbean followed the Citrine and Jones' advice and formed general unions, without occupational or industrial boundaries. The mill owners agreed to grant a weekly holiday to textile workers. After 1952, a number of efforts were made for bringing about some unity in the movement but all failed. The Communists severely criticized Gandhi and condemned the Round Table Conference in which the Congress was participating. It is usually formed of workers belonging to the same craft, occupation or specialisation no matter in what industry or trade they happen to be employed. As a result of this alluring manifesto, the Congress came to power in Seven States. The local trade union federation holds together the plant level unions at the local level in a particular craft and industry.
This is called an agency shop. It is an organisation or rather many forms of organisations based upon the sense of a common status and common need of mutual help. Unions representing workers employed on the production floor, or outdoor trades such as in construction work, are called blue-collar unions. This indicates the emergence of small scale trade unions. The main characteristics of the problem are that the total membership of the unions has been gradually increasing; the average membership has been decreasing. The Trade Union in India is engaged in protesting against the attacks on trade union right, right to strike, right to collective bargaining, reduction of social security, closure of industrial units and massive retrenchment of workers, and the endangering growth of unemployment. श्रम संघों की विशेषताएँ Characteristics of Trade Union : श्रम संघों सम्बन्धी कुछ आधारभूत तथ्य या विशेषताएँ निम्न प्रकार है: 1 श्रमिकों एवं कर्मचारियों का संगठन Association of Workers and Employees : यह एक संगठन है चाहे वह नियोक्ता कर्मचारियों अथवा श्रमिकों का हो । इस प्रकार भारत में श्रम संघ में साहूकार नियोक्ता के संगठन सामान्य श्रम संघ मैत्रिक संस्थाएँ बौद्धिक श्रम संगठन सम्मिलित किये गये हैं । इंग्लैण्ड में श्रम संघ व्यावसायिक व्यक्तियों के संगठन होते हैं, जैसे कलाकार एवं संगीतकार संघ आदि । चीन में इनका सम्बन्ध संस्थाओं स्कूलों तथा अनियमित रूप से कार्य करने वाले कर्मचारियों के संगठन से है । इन सभी प्रकार की संस्थाओं को श्रम संघों की श्रेणी में सम्मिलित नहीं करना चाहिए, क्योंकि नियोक्ता संगठन व्यावसायिक संगठन आदि श्रमिकों के हितों की रक्षा नहीं करते । श्रम संघ केवल श्रमिकों तथा कर्मचारियों के संगठन होते हैं । 2 श्रम संघ के बहुमुखी कार्य Multifunctional : श्रम संघ श्रमिकों का एक ऐसा संगठन है जो अपने सदस्यों के हित में कार्य करते हैं । इनका कार्य सदस्यों का सामाजिक राजनीतिक तथा सांस्कृतिक उत्थान करना है । प्रो.
The subscription rates are very low. This is referred to as an open shop. It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of interests —economic, political and social-of its members. These activities help the employees to maintain and improve their efficiency or productivity, e. Under conditions of multiplicity of unions, a union interested in increasing its membership figures keeps the subscription rate unduly low.
The objective for which formation of trade union takes place in the recognition of law is to spread industrial peace with aim to provide social, economical justice to people at large but this function can only be performed if the members of the trade unions are provided with civil liberty and democratic rights by the society they live in. Indian Journal of Social Work, July, 1968. Strike in a craft union may paralyses the entire working of the organisation. This character promoted the trade unions to become tools of political parties to serve their political aims. Federations Federal types of unions are most prominent in the Dutch areas of the Caribbean. These outsiders are politicians, intellectuals and professionals having no experience of work in industry.
Craft's union consists and comprises of earning of wage from the single occupation, it includes all the workmen working for single craft even of different industries ,An Industrial union is formed by virtue of actions of industry not because of similar crafts or works, General union consists the workmen of various crafts and industries. Deshpande formed a new organisation named. All these organisations are being controlled by different political parties. नये संघ New Unions : इनमें पूर्ण नियोजन की दशाएँ प्राप्त करने के लिए सरकारी एवं राजनीतिक प्रयास किए जाते हैं, तथा विकासमान अर्थव्यवस्था में विकास के साथ सुधरी हुई अधिक दशाओं के लिए ऊँची मजदूरी की माँग की जाती है । 5. The rising cost of living prompted the workers to take collective action for the increase in their wages. One drawback of this union in that the skilled workers feel that they are swamped by the unskilled workers. K Padmanabhan, President, Centre of Indian Trade Unions.
Trade unions in India are led largely by people who themselves are not workers. Hence any split in a political party leads to the same type of split in the trade union dominated by that party. In India formation of trade union takes place mainly because of industrial decisions reason of which can be reduced importance of craftsmen after industrialization and availability of large unskilled labour. The position of the Caribbean Congress of Labour has shifted and in recent times the Congress has been trying to establish a relationship with Cuba, based on pragmatic rather than ideological consideration. Statistics on Trade Unions are collected annually by the Labour Bureau of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. The reality is that whatever the structure of the trade union, bargaining at the enterprise level is overwhelmingly the predominant pattern of the region.