Decolonization As a theme in African philosophy, the term decolonization connotes an ideology for true emancipation in post-colonial Africa. Through the guise of developmental aids and support, technological and scientific assistance, the ex-colonial masters impose their hegemonic political and cultural control in the form of neocolonialism Serequeberhan 1998, 13. Such conditionality often renders the neocolonial state subservient to the economic and sometimes political will of the foreign donor. Conceptual Decolonization in African Philosophy: 4 Essays. It is a situation in which a new state acts under its own volition, free from the direct control of foreign actors.
In many cases, the African states have inadvertently authorized the dependency of African economies on foreign capital, which is a necessary legitimacy for neocolonialism. This colonial structure is aimed at emphasizing a historicity that promotes discourses on African primitiveness, which is used in justifying why the continent needed to be conquered and colonized in the first place Mudimbe 1988, 20. Local industries in Africa are extensions of metropolitan firms, such that the needed raw materials for the industries depend on very high import content of over 90% from the capitalist economies Attah 2013, 76. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1998. As a result of this situation, the West is under obligation in post-colonial Africa to keep up its aid, not as a tribute paid for past colonial situation but as one half of a two-way process of cooperation Molnar 1965, 183. A definition by Ronald J. Many were not, but this did not prevent traders posing as philanthropists who were rescuing the Africans from death and offering them a better and more productive life.
Furthermore, colonial rule was not an idea geared towards the development of the colonized states in any way, but something established solely for the benefit of the colonial states. While colonialism has ended, the reality on the ground in Africa in the immediate years after it is that political independence in many African states has not culminated in the much desired economic and cultural freedom Afisi 2011, 5. Tunde Obadina, a director of Africa Business Information Services, has acknowledged the importance of Britain, and other Western countries, in ending the slave trade. Despite colonial rule in Africa ending only late near the end of the twentieth century, Obadina submits that African nations at the beginning of the 21st century have the responsibility to develop themselves by making changes in their internal structures using indigenous knowledge, while at the same time learning all they can from the influence of the Western world and putting these to use for their own benefit. But this is a good time to undertake a disinterment. Ghanaian politician and educator Samuel Sulemana Fuseini has acknowledged that his Asante ancestors accumulated their great wealth by abducting, capturing, and kidnapping Africans and selling them as slaves.
The colonized must see violence in decolonization as that which leads not to retrogression, but liberation. Neocolonialism Today in Africa: The Era of Globalization The heavy dependence on foreign aid and the apparent activities of the multinational corporations in Africa reveal that Africa at the beginning of the 21st century is still in a neocolonial stage of development. Desperate poverty is perhaps the greatest challenge facing Africa. We highlight some of the notorious African slave traders who played active roles in the transatlantic slave trade. Religion too, according to Nkrumah, is distorted and used to support the cause of neocolonialism. Discussions about the negatives and some positives of colonialism and its offshoot neocolonialism in Africa are exposed in this article.
However, what cannot be denied is the fact that it was something imposed, which had no regard for the existing structures already in place. According to him, imperialism uses a cultural bomb to isolate people and estrange them from their identity. He acknowledges that the colonial regime in Africa left Africa in destitution, not only materially but also in terms of education and technical training. To this end, in politics, economics, religion, and even education, the state looks up to its imperialists, rather than improving upon its own indigenous culture and practices. Since the newly independent African countries will continue to be economically dependent on the West, neocolonialism is not a negative term.
Despite this, he avers that colonialism in Africa may have some positives. Conclusion As a theme of African philosophy, the term neocolonialism became widespread in use—particularly in reference to Africa—immediately the process of decolonization began in Africa. Africa has had to be dependent upon Europe and America, and, more recently, upon China for its development and, one might add, the development of her identity and culture. According to Fieldhouse, African states today would be a direct replica of what they were in the primitive days if they had not encountered the European culture and civilization. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988. To learn more about how we use and protect your data, please see our. For European Enlightenment philosophers, Africans were not in the same logical set as normal humans.
The widespread use of the term neocolonialism began when Africans realized that even after independence their countries were still being subjected to a new form of colonialism. Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition. Structural violence reflects the fact of exploitation and its necessary institutional form of the colonial situation. His claim is that instead of real independence, what Africa has is pseudo-independence with the trappings of the illusion of freedom. New York: Paradigm Publishers, 2011. They were faced with the task of liberating Africa from the imposition of neocolonial European values, languages, and belief systems, social, economic, and political systems which seemed to have replaced the pre-colonial African ones.
The continued relevance of Marxist socio-economic philosophy in contemporary times cannot be denied. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the indigenes were made by the colonial masters. It is particularly focused on the acquisition of power by a state over another group of people. Nkrumah views neocolonialism as a new form of subjugation of the economic, social, cultural, and political life of the African. The outcome of this, which is the colonial stage of society, alters mildly or altogether the economic, political, social and even intellectual structure of the conquered state. He explains that neocolonialist exploitation is implemented in the political, religious, ideological, economic, and cultural spheres of society.
The Arabs played an important role as middlemen in the trans-atlantic slave trade, and research data suggest that between the 7th and the 19th centuries, they transported more than 14 million black slaves across the Sahara and the Red Sea, as many or more than were shipped to the Americas, depending on the estimates for the transatlantic slave trade. Taiwo berates the level of hostility that Africa has shown towards modernity, stating the regrettable impact of such hostility to the economic, social, and political development of the continent Taiwo 2014. This book explains the causes of Africas economic stagnation and discusses the many ways in which grinding poverty contributes to a reduced quality of life for Africans. There were recorded protests by West African chiefs and traders after the abolition of slave trade. For those who practice it, it ensures power without responsibility and unchecked exploitation for those who suffer it. Labour was needed to cultivate the new source of wealth for the African elites. Decolonization refers to the ability or willingness of the previously colonized nation to become free from imperial rule in order to control its own domestic and international affairs.
The local bourgeoisie are bereft of ideas capable of engendering growth and development. Further, Molnar asserts that the call for decolonization in Africa took place in a hurried, haphazard way. Taiwo uncompromisingly defends globalization and suggests that its benefits must be harnessed by Africans. Central to Fanon is the idea that only through decolonization can there be true liberation. The method and praxis of neocolonialism lies in its guise to enjoin leaders of the independent colonies to accept developmental aids and support through which the imperial powers continue to penetrate and control their ex-colonies. An understanding of the basic modus operandi of imperialism suggests that foreign governments can govern a territory without significant settlement, quite unlike colonialism in which settlement is a key feature.