A second source of conflict rises from the breach between theory and practice. We scored a run in the sixth inning. Professional accreditation of poetry translators, therefore, is almost always informal, by word-of-mouth recommendation and reputation among second-order networks of literary production publishers, editors, poets, fellow translators, etc. London and Sydney: Croom Helm. A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing. Il s'agit donc de trouver les équivalents. One thing etymologists have discovered, of course, is that words change over time.
These include , , , , , , , and. Nida and Tiber distinguished two types of equivalence — formal equivalence correspondence and dynamic equivalence. God graciously gives the kingdom not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles, who come on the scene a bit late, redemptive-historically speaking. Translation theorists have been cognizant of the problems attendant upon cultural knowledge and cultural differences at least since ancient Rome. Especially after the , Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins. Translation is a form of communication and that is the reason it is so important to establish equivalence between the source text and the target text.
Partant d'exemples du travail d'Edward Said sur la nation et le nationalisme, sur la souveraineté, la langue, la culture et la traduction, je tente d'identifier la normativité et les savoirs institués dans le discours, ainsi que les façons que Said élabore afin de les identifier, de les surmonter, les caractériser et les contourner à notre époque postcoloniale, post-socialiste et mondialisée. At the same time, good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. A good translation conveys, to some extent, the literary subtleties of the original. Though Indianized states in often translated material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government. Poetry's features can be sound-based, syntactic or structural or pragmatic in nature. In practice, however, communicators usually agree quickly which genre is operating. Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
With regard to equivalent expressions between language pairs, Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as full equivalents. An interlinear would come the closest to the first extreme, followed by the. This way equivalence becomes the measure of success of translation process. This article examines the work of Niki Marangou, a Greek-language author from Cyprus. Poetry translation involves challenges and these are highlighted in this article. Another imponderable is how to imitate the 1-2, 1-2-3 in which five- lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read. Because the Hebrew alphabet in pre-Masoretic form has no vowels, the writings cannot be spoken without an interpretative addition on the part of the reader.
Reading comprehension While we are translating, we do not think of our activity as being broken down into phases. Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one. If translation is not possible, then what is it that language does? Jowett's example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion. It can be said that the first concept in cultural translation studies was cultural turn that in 1978 was presaged by the work on Polysystems and translation norms by Even-Zohar and in 1980 by Toury. When considering such aspects, the extent to which the author may be influenced by such notions which depend on his own sense of belonging to a specific socio-cultural group should not be forgotten.
Most mental processes involved in the reading act are automatic and unconscious. Catford was very much criticized for his linguistic theory of translation. Dynamic Equivalence The most important thing in translating is the message received by the audience. In each translation there will be a certain distortion between cultures. Finally, interviews and post-translation reports show differences between translators in terms of overall strategic orientation e.
In my judgment, none of the contemporary translations is manifestly superior to the others. Despite different approaches, the equivalence is an important notion in the translation process and it helps to approach the meaning and value of the translation process in general. Fortunately, it is not a vicious cycle, because if one is willing to entertain sympathetically a variety of options, one can grow in the confidence with which one evaluates a given translation. Its rigid adherence to the formal equivalence principle, while making it highly useful in the study, renders it completely inappropriate in a setting where communication is important. The postcolonial concepts may have conveyed a view of translation as just a damaging instrument of the colonizers who imposed their language and used translation to construct a distorted image of the suppressed people which served to reinforce the hierarchal structure of the colony. As with all other communication skills, creativity is best appreciated and yields the best result when used appropriately.
The former may also be the source poet. My computer runs on Windows. Two Opposing Theories Beyond that there are diverging disciplines, though I believe the overwhelming majority of translators adhere to one over the other. A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi 1801—73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late 1820s, teaching religion to Muslim students. Both theories recognize the limitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since there are several methods that the translator can choose. Despite using a linguistic approach to translation, Nida is much more interested in the message of the text or, in other words, in its semantic quality. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination.
Hamilton, New Zealand: Outrigger Publishers. He believed that this trend contributes to learning and understanding foreign cultures. Jakobson counts on semiotic approach where translator should extract the message from the source language and then choose the most appropriate means to pass it to the target language. Religious texts Religious texts have played a great role in the history of translation. It is here important to mention that these cultural theorists have kept their own ideology and agendas that drive their own criticism. His most notable contribution to translation theory is Dynamic Equivalence, also known as Functional Equivalence.