In der dem Buch zugrundeliegenden Studie, die später durch die Elmira-Studie zur ergänzt wurde, untersuchten Paul Lazarsfeld und seine Kollegen die Entstehung individueller Wahlentscheidungen. Die Situation von Wählern, die unterschiedlichen sozialen Gruppen mit widersprüchlichen Interessen angehören, beschrieb er mit dem Begriff Kreuzdruck. The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic. He also helped John Jenkins, an applied psychologist at , translate an introduction to statistics Lazarsfeld had written for his students in Vienna Say It With Figures. Result: You decide later closer to November how to vote; you're less likely to vote at all.
Armed with this data, Katz and Lazarsfeld developed the two-step flow theory of mass communication. Merton was seen as a budding theorist, while Lazarsfield was considered a methodology specialist. Die Entstehung individueller Wahlentscheidungen und der Einfluss von Informationen verschiedener Quellen, u. The work explores what factors shape vote choice. Sides with those who explain that campaign effects only reinforce previous predispositions. In: Christina Holtz-Bacha, Arnulf Kutsch Hrsg.
Mit der Veröffentlichung des Buchs begründete Paul Lazarsfeld die Denkrichtung zur Erklärung des Wählerverhaltens bei , die eine der drei Hauptströmungen der darstellt. A number of key concepts were developed, such as the two step flow of communication. He then proceeded to create two within the United States — most importantly with the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University. Against: 'Pure' rational , retrospective , and psychological schools of voting. Upon arrival Lazarsfeld explained to Merton that he had been just asked by the U. This study confirmed the earlier assertions that personal influence seems more important in decision making than media.
The book examines other key issues such as social differences between Republicans and Democrats ideological differences between Rs and Ds, the role of media, effects of the campaign on vote choice, the effect of being cross-pressu This is one of the very first classic books on voting behavior. The study revealed evidence suggesting that the flow of mass communication is less direct than previously supposed. Lynd would come to play a central role in helping Lazarsfeld emigrate to the United States, and would recommend him for the directorships of the Newark Center and the Princeton Office of Radio Research. Eventually, I dumped them into this site to make them more searchable and accessible. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Columbia University's social research center has been renamed after him.
The impact of the 1948 presidential campaign on voting behavior was assessed by studying the vote formation process during the 6 months immediately preceeding the election among a stratified sample of 600 persons residing in Erie County, Ohio. In the end, he thought that his ideas of empirical research had not been as widely received as he might have hoped. A genuine classic in the field. Although the ability of mass media to reach a large audience, and in this case persuade individuals in one direction or another, had been a topic of much research since the 1920's, it was not until the was published that society really began to understand the dynamics of the media-audience relationship. Lazarsfeld's interest in the persuasive elements of mass media became a topic of great importance during the and this resulted in increased attention, and funding, for communication research.
In 1937, he first tried to have the project moved to Newark, and when that request was turned down, split his time between the project and his institute in Newark. A History of Communication Study: A Biological Approach. For the theorists, the op inion leader theory proved an interesting discovery considering the relationship between media and its target was not the focus of the research, but instead a small aspect of the study. The information provided on this website is not official U. Class issues and candidate personalities were mentioned equally often as a reason for change to Truman early on, but later class issues were mentioned far more frequently. It was based on a of 2,400 voters in Erie County, Ohio, which lay between Cleveland and Toledo and including the small city of Sandusky.
As order driven beings, we seek to stretch and apply knowledge gained in all aspects of life to situations and experienc es very different from the origin of the k nowledge. Occupation Founding figure in 20th-century empirical Known for , , model, limited effects theory Paul Felix Lazarsfeld February 13, 1901 — August 30, 1976 was an Austrian-American. The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making. The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behavior , and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes an behavior. Paul Lazarsfeld — The Founder of Modern Empirical Sociology: A Research Biography.
The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. This theory involves the two-step flow of communicati on. It was during this time that the Bureau was able to control and distribute almost a million dollars and produce studies a sundry. Duell Sloan, 1944; 3rd ed. If an individual changed his candidate preference between any 2 interviews, he was asked to explain why he changed his preference.
This produced studies such as two long reports to the dairy industry on factors influencing the consumption of milk; and a questionnaire to let people assess whether they shop too much for. A genuine classic in the field. By the 1950s, there were increased concerns about the power of the mass media, and with , Lazarsfeld published Personal Influence, which propounded the theory of a , , and of community as filters for the mass media. McPhee, Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign University of Chicago Press, 1954. From 1933-1935, Lazarsfeld worked with the and toured the United States, making contacts and visiting the few universities that had programs related to empirical social science research. What is rejected is any conception that construes media experiences as alone sufficient for a wide variety of effects. Among adults living in the same home, voting homogeneity tops 90%.