Process Theory Process theory describes the process of how behavior is energized, directed, sustained, and stopped. Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. This chapter reviews such theories, focussing on the ones that have made the greatest contribution to the understanding of job satisfaction. The global measurement seeks to obtain a single score representing the overall job satisfaction an employee has. Examples of intrinsic rewards are such as a sense of accomplishment and self-actualization. Observations: Characteristics of the 4 jobs were quite similar. There are essentially two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees' feelings regarding their jobs.
Researchers can use an existing assessment tool or scale, as a means of assessment. They are defined as follows: Need for Achievement: This is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standard, and to strive to succeed. Researchers have divided Job satisfaction into 2 sub Categories: Affective Job Satisfaction and Cognitive Job Satisfaction Affective Job Satisfaction: The extent of pleasurable feelings one has about his or her job. Behavioral I am looking for another job Intention to behave in a certain way towards. In answering this question, draw extensively on Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model.
This report is based on recent research on job satisfaction and its findings that will appear significant in present modern organisations. Job characteristics are theories identifying how job characteristics affect job outcomes and the characteristics identifies the job characteristics in to five categories. Weiss and Cropanzano 1996 advocated that emotionally significant procedures at work may be influenced by disposition, which in turn influences job satisfaction. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 56-77. The first measure is based on what job the individual holds. Based on the existing research, a 'Research Model' on the issue, was constructed. It also positively impacts the organization's brand image.
Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that majority of the employees were satisfied with their supervisors, nature of job and colleagues but showed dissatisfaction for the rest of the factors like salaries, benefits, communication and conditions at work. Journal of Applied Business Research, 20 3 , 31-44. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. One might think that pay is considered to be the most important component in job satisfaction, although this has not been found to be true. High-need achievers have a strong desire for performance feedback. Job satisfaction can be assessed using a general scale, facet satisfaction scale or global satisfaction scale. Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy as shown in figure 17.
This comparison would apply to each job facet including: skill level, seniority, promotional opportunities, supervision, etc. Employees are the ones that give the necessary feedback in order for employers to know if people are satisfied with their jobs. Motivator-Hygiene Theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two opposite ends of the same continuum, but instead are two separate and, at times, even unrelated concepts. The discrepancy theory refers to differential job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction among workers Locke, 1969. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 469-480. Happy employees do not negatively affect productivity and can have a positive effect at workplace and on society at large. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1, 5-37.
They include such needs which indicate self-confidence, achievement, competence, knowledge and independence. Absenteeism, job involvement, and job satisfaction in an organizational setting. The purpose is to increase performance, motivation and satisfaction of the employees and to decrease absenteeism and turnover. Cleveland, World Publishing Company, 1966. Be sure to list some of the leading advocates names and key ideas. The indirect studies, however, are vulnerable to a number of important criticisms, namely that other unaccounted factors might be contributing to job satisfaction levels.
This paper is an attempt to synthesize the front line theories into a conceptual model wherein the respective contribution of each model is identified. A satisfied employee is a valuable asset for the company. To support this idea, Bright 2008 article reports that people who are happy with life are happier employees and show better organizational citizenship, courtesy and conscientiousness. Finally, the third catagory describes how employees can be payed as group. The prolific number of measures of job satisfaction has raised issues surrounding the reliability and validity of them. The more neurotic an individual, the less likely he will be satisfied on his job. All the theories can be synthesized into a satisfaction-model according to their contributions.
The use of any scales across national boundaries raises various issues, and users of job satisfaction scales should bear in mind how two particular issues, language and culture, might affect their results. The Importance of Job Satisfaction As mentioned in the overview, job satisfaction has been linked to many variables including performance, absenteeism and turnover, which will be discussed further in this section. The social influence hypothesis links job satisfaction to getting what you think others want. The other side of the need hierarchy is that human needs are unlimited. As a result, subsequent attempts to test this theory have obtained mixed results with some researchers supporting it and others not. This article presents several examples of Job satisfaction and the burnout syndrome.