Not all positions are equally pleasant, equally important, or equal in terms of required talent and ability. They argue that social stratification by income is inevitable in a free society because once income differentials are established which reflect the functional importance of different occupations limitations of talent within the overall population will prevent individuals from moving into functionally more important occupations and depressing the incomes of these occupations. Functionalism and Marxism are both sociological perspectives that ask and state certain theories about society and the people that live within it. Both of these propositions have allegedly been found empirically wanting. The inequality of rewards corresponds to what Davis and Moore call functional importance of the position.
Social stratification takes on new meanings when it is examined from different sociological perspectives—functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. If this is true rising living standards for all may be entirely possible without the necessity for large income inequalities. Stratification arises basically out of the needs of societies not out of the needs or desires of individuals. Emile… 541 Words 3 Pages A Comparison of Marxist and Functionalist Views on Society There is a division between functionalists and Marxists over the functions of the society. Davis and Moore argue that all societies need some mechanism for insuring effective role allocation and performance. Members of each layer are considered broadly equal… 1537 Words 7 Pages Compare and Contrast Functionalist and Marxist Theories of Stratification Stratification is the separation of society into layers which are distinguished by unequal rewards and life chances and many systems of stratification have been based on slavery, caste and feudalism. For example, the Minnesota Timberwolves hand out the lowest annual payroll, while the Los Angeles Lakers reportedly pay the highest.
Do you agree with Davis and Moore? The functionalist view of play is that children engage in play occupations in order to develop skills Parham, 1996, p. Tumin also felt that Davis and Moore ignored the influence of power on the unequal distribution of rewards. Marx saw that the current economic system of industrialized capitalism had created two major classes of people and one relatively minor one. Stratification is the ranking of units in a social system in accordance with the common value system. They also stated that the more skill required for a job, the fewer qualified people there would be to do that job. The Davis-Moore thesis states that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society. Thus, laws codifying the practice were implemented.
Against this the radicals claim that only the abolition of private property and the class system can promote the self-development of all, a view which Functionalists, of course, regard as entirely unrealistic. Certain jobs, like mowing grass or cleaning toilets, can be performed by almost anyone, while other jobs, such as performing brain surgery, are difficult and require the most talented people to perform them. Third, it persists over generations and fourth, it is supported by patterns of belief. Stratification and Interaction Social stratification is typically analyzed from a macro-level perspective, such as conflict theory and functionalism. He based his theory on the idea that society has two classes of people: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Those who perform successfully in terms of society's values will be ranked highly and are likely to be rewarded highly. It is the dismissal of people from participation in what we, the members of society distinguish as being valuable, important, socially desirable, and personally worthwhile.
Hence, a custom—a pattern of social behaviors—may survive because it is useful, or functional, for the system. There are many different sociological theories that differ within the role of education within society that attempt to try and explain how society or aspects… 1819 Words 8 Pages perspective that focuses on the ways in which a complex pattern of social structures and arrangements contributes to social order. Class itself can be though of as implying a set of life chances and obstacles to social mobility. Theoretically, we can analyze social stratification from three major perspectives. Conflict theorists have argued that Functionalists have in general overstated the extent to which societies are organised in the interests of all of societies' members and overstated also the useful contributions which existing social institutions make to the stability of societies and understated both the extent to which societies are organised primarily in the interests of privileged minorities and against the interests of the majority and the possible dysfunctions of exiting social institutions. Because the capitalist system works well in the interests of all of its members there will limited conflict in society and a general consensus that the capitalist system should be continued in the future.
First there is the need to instil in the abler members the motivation to occupy important and difficult positions which require greater than average ability. . In the United States, it is perfectly clear that some groups have greater status, power, and wealth than other groups. According to structural functionalists, gender serves to maintain social order by providing and ensuring the stability of such functional prerequisites. A structural-functionalist view of gender inequality applies the division of labor to view predefined as complementary: women take care of the home while men provide for the family. Furthermore once we relax the basic general assumptions of Functionalism we are led on to additional criticisms of the Functionalist Theory of Social Stratification.
In 1945, sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore published the Davis-Moore thesis, which argued that the greater the functional importance of a social role, the greater must be the reward. Furthermore against Functionalism it is argued that unequal patterns of social stratification undermine meritocracy and are dysfunctional in several other respects including , for example, the generation of social class differences in health and life expectancy and that although unequal patterns of social stratification are observable in most, if not all known societies, this does not mean that they are necessarily inevitable. Those who belong to a particular group or stratum will have some awareness of common interests and a common identity. There must be rewards to provide inducements and those rewards must be distributed unequally to assure that all positions get filled. In addition, Murdock believed that the family performed four basic functions in society such as stable satisfaction of the sex drive, reproductive function, economic function and socialisation. People are turning to science as a way of life, theories which head down the evolutionary approach.
Even within specific fields, layers are stratified and members are ranked. Functionalism tends to explain elements of society in terms of their use, or functionality, for the system as a whole. In sociological , functional prerequisites are the basic needs food, shelter, clothing, and money that an individual requires to live above. Today, while working conditions have improved, conflict theorists believe that the strained working relationship between employers and employees still exists. The Functionalist Theory of Social Stratification has been subjected to several important criticisms; the major opponent being Melvin Tumin. To explore these necessary duties of religion we must first understand the definition of religion. People were divided by a single line: they either owned factories or worked in them.
This may be said, along with the rights and perquisites, to constitute institutionalized social inequality, i. High income, power, prestige of a particular position are due to functional importance or scarcity of trained personnel. Conflict Theory These people are protesting a decision made by Tennessee Technological University in Cookeville, Tennessee, to lay off custodians and outsource the jobs to a private firm to avoid paying employee benefits. Why does social stratification exist, and why are some countries more stratified than others? Definition of Social Stratification Social stratification refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Functionalists view society as a set of interconnected parts which work together to form a whole.
Religion acts as an act of hope which allows individuals to feel at ease when they are increasingly stressed out. This is accomplished through the unequal distribution of rewards. And so forth; this general pattern probably applies to marriage, for example—and not that feedback need not take the form of laws, but other authoritative measures religious rites, etc. In recent years so-called neo-Functionalists have argued that although some of the arguments raised by original orthodox Functionalists are certainly open to criticisms it may nevertheless be legitimate to argue that the incomes of highly paid industrial and financial entrepreneurs and of skilled managers , administrators and professionals within the private and public sectors may to some extent reflect the functionality of their work combined with the relative scarcity of their skills and abilities. The tendency of society is toward stability, harmony, or equilibrium, in other words toward balance.