His campaign of expansion included the capture of Sri Lanka, which remained under the Chola rule for 75 years. The Great Living Chola Temples includes three temples, the Brihadesvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavastesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Cholas are best known for their local self government at the village level. Marana wrote Markandeya Purana in Telugu. Society During the Chola period several guilds, communities and castes emerged. Pandyas and Chera's attack were put down by Kulottunga.
The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Social Life: The caste system was the basis of the social organization under the Cholas. However, the already vanquished Hoysalas were in a defensive position. He was succeeded by Kulottunga I 1070-1122 A. In 1257 the Pandyan conquered the Chola country and after a long rule the Chola Dynasty collapsed in 1279. Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha, and additional information by Edward Dawson. The sculptures and bronzes were also remarkable- Nataraja the Divine Dancer is one of the finest art.
Origin of the Chola Dynasty Since the Chola kings and emperors followed and bore two titles namely, Parakesharivarman and Rajakesharivarman, their chronology is a bit difficult to trace. Institute of Epigraphy, State Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamilnadu. According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Its antiquity is evident from the mentions in and in inscriptions. These temples date back to early 11th and 12th century. Bukka I appointed his son Veera Kumara Kampana as the viceroy of the Tamil region.
Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was initially appointed as a commander Dandanayaka in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana six-faced god of war. All early Pallava royal inscriptions were either in Sanskrit or Prakrit, considered the official languages of the dynasty while the official scripts were Pallava and later Grantha. Traditionally, the legendary were held in under their patronage, and some of the Pandya Kings were poets themselves. His son was Rajendra Chola Deva I, who completely conquered Sri Lanka. Those coins were etched with elephant on one side and the other side remained blank.
The first type constituted of an intercaste population where the land was held by all classes of people and paid taxes to the king in the form of land revenue. This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and the Pandyas. The Pandyas had issued silver and die struck copper coins in the early period. There is very little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. He set up Vaishnava centre and the Vedic college for teaching Vedas.
Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. The Kakatiyas and Hoysalas partitioned among themselves the territory of the Chola Empire and Chola Empire ceased to exist for ever. They successfully united South India under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in and. The Chola kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth. During their history, the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the , , and finally the Muslim invaders from the. The History of the Pandya Country.
The Cholas renewed their control with the help of the Hoysalas under Hoysala king. Rajaraja chola built a magnificent temple at Tanjore, which is named as Rajarajeshwar after his name. Parantaka I drove the Pandayas out of their territories and into Lanka c. The Chola temple architecture has been appreciated for its magnificence as well as delicate workmanship, ostensibly following the rich traditions of the past bequeathed to them by the Pallava Dynasty. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by later inscriptions. Rajendra Chola then later attacked the Western Chalukyas and their allies. Skilled classes like the weavers and the merchant-class had become prosperous.
According to the 14th century Sanskrit treatise , a general named Vikrama Pandya defeated the Muslims. To promote trade, he sent the first Chola mission to China. This seems to indicate a fishermen origin of the Pandyas. There was an expansion of the administrative structure, particularly from the reign of Rajaraja Chola I onwards. Vijaya Skandavarman Sivaskandavarman was king of the Pallava kingdom at Bellary region in Andhra, and viceroy of Samudragupta at Kanchipuram. Birudas The royal custom of using a series of descriptive honorific titles, Birudas, was particularly prevalent among the Pallavas. They were exempted from tax and were prosperous.
Chola Art and Architecture One of the legacies of the Chola Empire that can still be seen today is their art and architecture. Beside silk, Wootz steel, spices were also exported. Pandyan Nedumchadayan was a staunch Vaishnavite. Due to the on-going conflict between the Pallavas and the Pandyas, Vijayalaya was able to defeat the Pallavas, and took Tanjore now known as Thanjavur , a city in the modern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, form them. The Cholas period was a golden time for literature. After the Sangam Era The Early Cholas of the Sangam era were one of the most dominant political force in the Tamil country.