It is equally evident, that the members of each department should be as little dependent as possible on those of the others, for the emoluments annexed to their offices. This is one reason the Constitutional Convention was a remarkable event. Next to the Declaration of Independence and the U. The Articles of Confederation did not effectively control and reduce the negative effects of factions on the nation, and thus a new government was necessary. Within these parties, there is even room for disagreement. If the principles on which these observations are founded be just, as I persuade myself they are, and they be applied as a criterion to the several state constitutions, and to the federal constitution, it will be found, that if the latter does not perfectly correspond with them, the former are infinitely less able to bear such a test. As with the other essays in the collection, Federalist No.
Lesson Summary So, in order to wrap things up nicely, let's review our key terms and ideas. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions. Under one centralized representative government, a diverse nation could thrive, ruled by the majority, but with a fair amount of consideration for all. If this principle were strictly followed, it would mean that the citizens should select the president, the legislators, and the judges. If men were angels, no government would be necessary.
Perhaps as we progress through the remaining papers we will discover why Madison and Hamilton thought it best that the people did not directly elect Senators and the President. As long as men hold different opinions, have different amounts of wealth, and own different amount of property, they will continue to fraternize with people who are most similar to them. Without presuming to undertake a full development of this important idea, I will hazard a few general observations, which may perhaps place it in a clearer light, and enable us to form a more correct judgment of the principles and structure of the government planned by the convention. It is the end of civil society. He asks us How can we do this though? If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. Constitution, they are some of our most important national documents.
There are two main political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. No one denied any of this. The Federalist Papers is the name we give to a collection of political essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay during the 1780s. Why, you do like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton and publish some essays, of course! The Text While each Federalist paper was published anonymously, Federalist papers 10 and 51 were most likely written by James Madison, because they mostly deal with things about the government that he introduced. Political Context In the 1780s the Founders saw the potential for factions to disrupt the newly created American republic. And the condition of anarchy tempts even strong individuals and groups to submit to any form of government, no matter how bad, which they hope will protect them as well as the weak.
The constitutional rights of all must check one man's personal interests and ambitions. As the weight of the legislative authority requires that it should be thus divided, the weakness of the executive may require, on the other hand, that it should be fortified. Madison was convinced that the class struggle would be ameliorated in America by establishing a limited federal government that would make functional use of the vast size of the country and the existence of the states as active political organisms. Obviously, in a democracy this is a crucial consideration. Besides, he was more intent now on developing the cure than on describing the malady. They allow us to see how some of America's Founders understood politics. Either we must prevent the existence of a common goal in a majority, or the majority must be made unable to oppress the public with the enactment of their will.
Because of this, they generally have different interests at heart, interests which they will support, often at the expense of other groups, if they are given the freedom to do so. Political Context In the 1780s the Founders saw the potential for factions to disrupt the newly created American republic. Another is to cause everyone to have the same opinions, which is equally impossible. Where Hamilton saw the corporate spirit of the several states as poisonous to the union, Madison was aware that the preservation of the state governments could serve the cause of both liberty and union. We see it particularly displayed in all the subordinate distributions of power; where the constant aim is, to divide and arrange the several offices in such a manner as that each may be a check on the other; that the private interest of every individual may be a centinel over the public rights. Federalists were typically members of the cultured and propertied classes, and included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.
But there is no formula by which the frequency can be selected so he turns to the experience of history. It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to controul the abuses of government. Many, if not most, changes in institutional design, occur as the reactions of shortsighted people to what they perceive as more-or-less short-range needs. . He indicates that the voice of the people pronounced by a body of representatives is more conformable to the interest of the community. But this cannot apply to the judiciary because judges must be chosen for their qualifications and they will be chosen for a permanent tenure, thus they should be chosen by the mode that selects the best candidates. The causes of factions are thus part of the nature of man and we must deal with their effects and accept their existence.
Were this principle rigorously adhered to, it would require that all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people, through channels having no communication whatever with one another. But I wonder if he ever considered the opposite issue: that in a representative government the restraints built in to give minority interests power to not be overrun by majorities also gives them power to thwart the will of the majority by throwing the system into gridlock where nothing can be done. His effectiveness as an advocate of a new constitution, and of the particular constitution that was drawn up in Philadelphia in 1787, was certainly based in a large part on his personal experience in public life and his personal knowledge of the conditions of American in 1787. Minority groups would be protected because the factions would have to negotiate their differences. This policy of supplying, by opposite and rival interests, the defect of better motives, might be traced through the whole system of human affairs, private as well as public. In the extended republic of the United States, and among the great variety of interests, parties, and sects which it embraces, a coalition of a majority of the whole society could seldom take place on any other principles than those of justice and the general good; whilst there being thus less danger to a minor from the will of a major party, there must be less pretext, also, to provide for the security of the former, by introducing into the government a will not dependent on the latter, or, in other words, a will independent of the society itself. Pure or direct democracies countries in which all the citizens participate directly in making the laws cannot possibly control factious conflicts.
The first solution is foolish and unacceptable, as it would be worse than the initial problem. Men who are members of particular factions, or who have prejudices or evil motives might manage, by intrigue or corruption, to win elections and then betray the interests of the people. The opening statement was bold and rather bald, characteristically Hamiltonian in style. Madison understood that factionalism was naturally occurring within democratic political structures. To ensure protection against tyranny or a single all-powerful branch, it is necessary to ensure that each branch is as independent and secure as the others.
One would be to obliterate liberty itself, which Madison states is obviously unacceptable. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place. Analysis In this essay, Madison's thoughts on factionalism are delineated clearly. However, he was equally concerned about the greater risk of tyranny of the majority. The framers established a representative form of government, a government in which the many elect the few who govern. As the members of the executive and judiciary departments would be fewer in number and less known personally to the public, members of the legislative branch, having been chosen immediately by the people, would have the advantage in swinging public opinion to their point of view.