For good and for bad. As a result of technological advance it becomes possible to produce more output with same resources or the same amount of product with less resource. For instance, saving in India on the eve of independence was about 6 per cent of the national income. Benefits vary substantially by practice setting and may be contingent upon full-time employment. Though the foreign companies send back profits earned, their investments in factories increase the rate of capital accumulation in the developing countries leading to a higher rate of economic growth and higher productivity of labour. The conduciveness of the country for its citizens to exercise freedom of expression and speech and the election system.
The volume of production depends upon the quality and quantity of capital available in the country. He concluded that the level of a person's income determined the amount of money people demand to hold or save. The production is adversely affected by thee political unrest. Economic growth can be defined as an increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services within a specific period of time. It is only when savings are invested and used productively that they contribute to economic growth. Terms of Trade: Trade benefits all countries which engage in it, but the degree of benefit enjoyed by a particular country will vary according to changes in the price levels at which it sells its exports and imports.
Investment depends upon the marginal efficiency of capital and the rate of interest. The resources beneath the land or underground resources include oil, natural gas, metals, non-metals, and minerals. Since a developing country such as India has a lot of surplus labour but a small stock of capital, the workers cannot be productive if they are employed in some activities. However, since an output of one industry may be used by another industry and become part of the output of that second industry, to avoid counting the item twice we use not the value output by each industry, but the value-added; that is, the difference between the value of what it puts out and what it takes in. There may be political instabilities that may hinder people from enjoying security, leisure e.
The availability of this skill will affect the use of resources and hence the size of the national income. For example, an educated person might generate new ideas which may lead to the improvement in methods of producing goods. Whether or not the growth of population contributes to economic growth depends on the existing size of population; the available supplies of natural and capital resources, and the prevailing technology. As a result, unemployment in developing countries like India has been increasing despite the progress in industrialisation of the economy. It may be noted that the economic transformation of the society from one stage to another involves, along with other things, a change in the level and character of technology. This makes it difficult to calculate national income correctly. Also, the technological progress may express itself in making available new products.
The prosperity of any country depends upon the large size of national income. The extent of the market. Strenuous efforts are being made to use improved technology in agriculture, industries, health, sanitation, education and, in fact, in all walks of human life. In our above analysis we have explained that education is regarded as investment and like investment in physical capital, it raises productivity of labour and thus contributes to growth of national income. Valuing unpaid for services like services for house wives. .
Give the rate of investment, the lower the capital-output ratio the higher the rate of economic growth. It includes income from employment, as paid labor, income from self-employment and transfer income and rental incomes but it excludes undistributed profits and other income which is not currently received. Since what they are paid is just the market value of their product, their total income must be the total value of the product. Best to learn a trade that will always be needed. As a result of the use of the capital-intensive technology, enough employment opportunities have not been created by the large-scale industries using imported technology. There may be increase in pollution because of incorporating subsistence output of goods and services. Political stability and security of a country.
While the size of national income depends upon the following factors : 1. Besides, through increase in efficiency capital-output ratio has been estimated to decline to 3. Increase in output may be generated at the expense of leisure. This identity can be presented on a circular flow of income which is the diagrammatic representation of the flow of income and expenditure between the firms and households. Supplies of natural resources can be increased as a result of new discoveries of resources within a country or technological changes which facilitate discoveries or transform certain previously useless materials into highly useful ones. High taxes reduce real income and low taxes lead to high real income. Wages, proprietor's incomes, and corporate profits are the major subdivisions of income.
A country which has a wide market both internal and external has the incentive to increase production from time to time and therefore has high national income but a country with limited market has low national income. This is the average income per individual in a country at a given period of time. Therefore, increase in the quantity of labour force will contribute to economic growth when the cooperating factor capital is also increasing. It is difficult to know what is spent in the subsistence sector in terms of value. Personal income This is income received by individuals or households in a given period of time. The selection of right technology also plays an role for the growth of an economy. The cost of living refers to the amount on money needed to purchase a given basket of commodities at a particular period of time.