Rice, sugarcane and vegetables are important crops in these areas. This ancient system is used by the farmers of Khasi and Jaintia hills to drip-irrigate their black pepper cultivation. Evaporation of water is minimum in this method. Its main purpose is to harvest rainwater for drinking. Sometimes the flow of water over the soil is too rapid to fulfil soil moisture deficiency.
Eris can either be a system eri, which is fed by channels that divert river water, or a non-system eri, that is fed solely by rain. Internal radius of side pipe is from 10 to 32 mm. The marshes and the ponds in some time become the colonies of the mosquito, which gives rise to a disease like malaria. It is best suited to coarse sandy terrain where the percolation loss is more and where as a consequence, the frequency of irrigation required is more. Surface irrigation is the most common form of irrigation.
Thus the proper method is to be used for best cultivation. If the water table is more than 50 metres deep the cost of pumping out water from the tube well becomes uneconomic. Silting of the tank bed is a serious problem and it requires de-silting of the tank at regular intervals. As India grows and there is an increasing demand for food, water is becoming more and more crucial. In this method, water directly reaches the roots of the plants, which take water to plants in balanced quantities.
They add to the fertility of soil when they reach the agricultural field along with well water. Strips are separated by low embankments or levees. Out of the total area under irrigation, 40 per cent are irrigated by canals, 40 per cent by wells and 12 per cent by tanks. To summarize, Irrigation is a technique of supplying water to the dry land as a supplementation of rain water. In simple words, it is when people supply water to plants to help them grow when there is not enough rain.
Deep wells are more suitable for the purpose of irrigation as water from them is available throughout the year. Utmost care has to be taken for holes of drippers, because soil may come along with water at any time, which will prevent water dripping smoothing from holes. It is mainly aimed for cultivation. Flow rate of drippers is 2 to 10 litres per hour. It is also suitable to coarse sandy terrain where the percolation loss is more and where as a consequence, the frequency of irrigation required is more. Kuhls Kuhls are surface water channels found in the mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh.
Moisture is necessary for the germination of seeds. In such circumstances the per hectare yields are generally lower. Irrigation by Canals: This is the most convenient method of irrigation. The quantity of flow of water depends on demand of water by plants and the rate of infiltration. Advantages of Well and Tube Well Irrigation: Well is simplest and cost effective source of irrigation and the poor Indian farmer can easily afford it. Without sufficient leaching, salts applied with the irrigation water may build up in the root zone. In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface.
Thus the canals are practically absent from the Peninsular plateau area. It started in the hilly areas of Western ghats in states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and in the North eastern states mainly for plantation crops like coffee, tea, cardamom, rubber etc. The little rain that the region received would be diverted to man-made tanks through canals built on the hilly outskirts of cities. Johads Johads, one of the oldest systems used to conserve and recharge ground water, are small earthen check dams that capture and store rainwater. The water impounded by the bund is used for irrigation and for other purposes.
Direction of the air should also be kept in view and it should be fitted at 90° of the direction of the air but in no case it should be lesser than 45°. Where soil textures may be of different nature, for example, sandy soil at some places and stony soil at others places. Even after changing the branch lines, the number of nozzles should remain same. Users need to plan for drip tape winding, disposal, recycling or reuse. But as you can probably guess by the name, the tubes are buried below the surface of the ground. Irrigation may be required in large areas. Also known as flood irrigation, it uses gravity to distribute water.