That raises the question of whether girls go through similar stages of moral development. Sociological Explanations: The Development of the Self One set of explanations, and the most sociological of those we discuss, looks at how the Self-image, self-identity, or self-concept. Someone with a hyperactive superego would be confined within a too-rigid system of rules, which would inhibit his or her ability to live normally. We then use these perceptions to develop judgments and feelings about ourselves, such as pride or embarrassment. The prominent theories of socialization are formulated by Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead and Sigmund Freud.
Would it not affect your feelings about yourself? Cooley decided that he wanted to study sociology because it gave him the ability to think and analyze social problems. Cooley was fully aware of the pitfalls in the analogy between society and the biological organism. While society has continued to evolve and change even at a more rapid pace, many of the social problems Cooley was concerned with still exist today. He read his dissertation paper, as well as a second work, at a meeting of the American Economic Association in 1890. Likewise, Mead also held society in esteem in its ability to show the developing self the social cues of what is right and wrong. Play Stage The first stage is the play stage in which pre-kindergarten children think and act like the people they frequently see.
Your self-image is one of hard work and dedication, and you don't want to be perceived as being lazy. The looking-glass self in family context: A social relations analysis. The child conceives of himself as better or worse in varying degrees, depending upon the attitudes of others towards him. Chances are because someone told you so, and you believed them. He built a cabin at Crystal Lake in Northern Michigan, where he and his family went swimming and boating. Mead believed that the key to self-development is understanding the role of the other.
These stages are play, game, and. The child tries to understand the relative roles of various individuals involved in the same social context. If people break a rule because of some important personal need or because they are trying to help someone, then their behavior may not be wrong. Hence they are imperative and compulsive. As babies get older, they learn that not all their needs can be immediately satisfied and thus develop the ego, or the rational part of the personality. Society is the human nature that is expressed in primary groups that we can be found in all civilizations. As a child he dealt with the feeling of isolation and loneliness, which led him to take an interest in reading and writing.
Beneath cultural differences there is a common core of experience in primary groups which is so similar around the world that it produces a common human nature. Therefore, Gardner Murphy says that the self is the individual as known to be individual. In the play stage, children are not organised wholes because they play at a series of discrete roles. Mead emphasized the particularly human use of language and other symbols to convey meaning. He is now capable of taking the same view of himself that he infers others do.
The sense of self is defined as a collection of beliefs that we hold, while self-socialization is defined as a developmental process that allows you to reflect upon yourself. One is his organic view of society; the other is the central role he gave to mind. This means they pretend to be other people in their play and in so doing learn what these other people expect of them. Thus, the looking glass self, which the individual perceives, may differ from the image others have actually formed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
As a social psychologist, Mead disagreed on the views of anti-positivists stating that an individual person is a product of society or more specifically on social interaction. This process of discovering the nature of the self from the reactions of others has been labelled the looking-glass self by Cooley. Instead, similarities exist that made the two theories fit for the process of socialization or social interaction and the determination of self-concept in the long run. His organic view postulates so seamless a web of social life that no emphasis on structure is made. Through these interactions, human beings develop an idea of who they are. For discussion of the subsequent development of his ideas, see, article on, article on; ; , article on; and the biographies of; ; ; ;. The way they acquire such cognitive development was the focus of research by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget 1896—1980.
His father, Thomas Mclntyre Cooley, was the first dean of the Law School, a justice of the Michigan Supreme Court, first chairman of the , and the author of several famous legal treatises. He must realize that neither the individual nor the group is basic, that both are aspects of the same whole. Even at age 15, he seemed to just read and keep to himself. Another way of saying this is that they internalize the expectations other people have of them. Though not a conscious process, these three stages occur in quick succession.
But Cooley realized that democracy will not work unless there is a latent moral unity—a tradition of justice, freedom, and humanity—beneath the differing class views expressed in public opinion. All the players need to know several roles, rules so as to ensure that the behavior of the participants fits together. In this stage, children and young adults interact with society and adopt the expectations of that group. There are three principal elements of the looking-glass concept: 1 Our perception of how we look to others. He began teaching sociology in the academic year of 1894 to 1895. In a game a child begins to consider the roles of several others at the same time.