This occurred when researchers cited Stake or Yin, or both Mawn et al. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. The volume of data, together with the time restrictions in place, impacted on the depth of analysis that was possible within the available resources. Enhancing the quality of case studies in health services research. Theoretical frameworks may also play an important role in integrating different sources of data and examining emerging themes. The role and position of the researcher needed to be self-examined and understood by readers, to understand how this influenced interactions with participants, and to determine what triangulation is needed Merriam, ; Stake,. There is an ethical issue of competence.
Data Gathering: Are data-gathering activities outlined? Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. There were inconsistencies between reported methodology, study design, and paradigmatic approach in case studies reviewed, which made it difficult to understand the study methodology and theoretical foundations. The method selected depends upon the nature of the question being asked and the goals of the researcher. The following are the qualitative research methods that are frequently used: 1. The criteria proposed by Stake provide a framework for readers and reviewers to make judgements regarding case study quality, and identify key characteristics essential for good methodological rigour.
On the contrary, we encourage new ideas about using case study, together with adequate reporting, which will advance the value and practice of case study. Seeking potential, alternative explanations, and being explicit about how interpretations and conclusions were reached, help readers to judge the trustworthiness of the case study report. Compare previous research and identify areas that have not yet been explored. Adequate page space for case study description would contribute to better publications Gillard et al. In exploratory case studies, fieldwork and data collection may be undertaken prior to definition of the research questions and hypothesis.
Though inherently challenging, the research case study can, if carefully conceptualised and thoughtfully undertaken and reported, yield powerful insights into many important aspects of health and healthcare delivery. It is usual for multiple sources of evidence to be used Yin, 2009. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. One of the advantages of this method provides a great opportunity to gather precise data about what people believe and what their motivations are. The collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate a still broader appreciation of a particular issue.
What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be avoided? Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. Context: Health work forces globally are needing to reorganise and reconfigure in order to meet the challenges posed by the increased numbers of people living with long-term conditions in an efficient and sustainable manner. Case study research has a level of flexibility that is not readily offered by other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory or phenomenology. This is an appropriate approach when the question being studied is more general in nature and the data provides an overview. American Political Science Review, 98 2 , 341-354. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing and implementing qualitative case study research projects.
Cost: Are time and resource estimates reasonable? Resisting resistance stories: A tri-autoethnographic exploration of father narratives across shades of difference. Sandelowski , argued for accurate identification of qualitative description as a research approach. It should therefore be considered when an experimental design is either inappropriate to answer the research questions posed or impossible to undertake. They are commonly used to collect in-depth data in a natural setting where the researcher has little or no control over the events and there is a real life context. Our thanks are also due to Dr. These studies comprise two or more studies involving two or more research location for the purpose of inter-unit comparison. This second list was the main criteria used to assess the methodological descriptions of the case studies reviewed.
Study design The critical review method described by Grant and Booth was used, which is appropriate for the assessment of research quality, and is used for literature analysis to inform research and practice. Data collection: Semi-structured interviews, documentary data and field notes, observations and quantitative data. Is the case adequately defined? The first, proposed by Stake and Merriam , is situated in a social constructivist paradigm, whereas the second, by Yin , Flyvbjerg , and Eisenhardt , approaches case study from a post-positivist viewpoint. Methodological decisions are described in first person narrative, providing insight on researcher perspectives and interaction with the case. Case reports were not a case of something, instead were a case demonstration or an example presented in a report. By providing a brief outline of the case studies in and , we demonstrate how effective case boundaries can be constructed and reported, which may be of particular interest to prospective case study researchers. This is different to systematic reviews that answer clinical questions.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60 4 , 447-452. Descriptive case aim essentially to document or classify a situation. While differences exist in some areas, commonalities are evident that can guide the application of a case study research design. Stake's original criteria were separated into two categories. An of members who were the loyal patrons of the bookstore were interviewed and related questions were asked and the questions were answered by them.
Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. It is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences. The former is ideally studied using a controlled experimental design, whereas the latter is more appropriately studied using a case study design. This method may look difficult to operate, however, it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data. This range accentuates the flexibility of case study research as a distinct form of inquiry that enables comprehensive and in-depth insight into a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. However, the turbulence, which surrounded reorganisation was found to have the opposite desired effect.
This usually involves searching the data to identify and categorize specific actions or characteristics. This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior e. There are several types of case study methods. Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, 1196-1212. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims.